Oh dreaded hoof trimming day lol...its not one of the most glamorous jobs we do, but it must me done...
A stand is easiest way to trim when you are on your own...but you can also tie the goat up to a post or tree. or a strong helper
trimmers, I like the orange handled ones I order off of Jeffers, but TSC carries a green handle one that works good too...these are great for small hands..
I like to have a box knife to help slough off the pad which sometimes can be hard to get flush with the walls...do take care not to get the wick as they call it...if you do make the goat bleed, don’t freak out..it bleeds a lot but will stop once the goat gets moving...if its real bad..I put cayenne pepper on it and press with a paper towel until it stops..
One of these days I will get pix up on how we do it here but in the mean time here is a video to give a good visual. I prefer to start with the back feet and move to the front and I do not straddle to do the back feet, but we each need to find what works for us : ) happy trimming
A good link to read as well, offers solid step by step...
Please seek a vet if the break is a compound break (where bone is through the skin)
Best option is getting vet care and an x ray...but this is not always an option. as long as the break is not a compound fracture, where bone is through the skin, you can cast it at home..
Give tetanus antitoxin (2 cc kids/4 cc adults) and B complex ( 1 cc per 25#) to support the system. You may also choose to give a single shot of Banamine ( 1 cc per 100#) to help with the process of setting and casting. After the leg is set..no more banamine, The goat needs to remember she’s injured so not to overdo and hurt further. Aspirin can be given to help with discomfort and swelling. 1 adult aspirin per 10#
You can splint a clean break with most any smooth but firm item such as pvc pipe, pool noodle or pipe insulation tube, cotton and vet wrap...
For Splinting: make sure break is together and wrap in several layers of cotton. re check break to be sure it didn’t shift. Apply your brace, and vet wrap securely in place, you need to do several wraps...be sure to go way above and below the break. Make sure the leg is in a comfortable position to walk, lay down and get back up..you also want to be sure its not too tight. check below the wrap 30-40 minutes after wrapping. If the leg is cold you need to undo and rewrap a little looser.
When things are a little more complicated, The best home option is casting strips you can buy at Tractor Supply to stabilize the break...You will also need Cotton , vet wrap, good scissors and a helper
Make the goat comfortable as you can but situated where you can easily assess the break..Feel the area carefully, make sure the breaks are lined up best you can. Usually this is easy enough but sometimes the bone is separated and needs more coaxing..once you have the bone lined up..wrap in cotton then vet wrap to keep in place. Be sure to have this where it will be above the cast to prevent rubbing. To do this, have your cotton cut and ready and Vet wrap at hand..Be sure to wrap up to joints above and below the break, or at least a good amount to support the break. You may need to lay the goat down to keep the bone in place..once you wrap in cotton, feel the break to be sure it has not shifted. Stretch out some vet wrap and while your helper is holding the leg secure, wrap the leg, again feeling as you work to be sure break has not shifted. once this process is done, let the goat rest several minutes so you can assess the leg to be sure its all in the right place, and to be sure the wrap is not too tight. Before continuing, feel the leg below the wrap to be sure its not cold. you can now begin plaster strips OR make a Schroeder-Thomas brace/bandage
To Cast: have warm water in a bowl ready and begin soaking plaster strips applying one layer on at a time...this stuff gets hot when wet so don’t rush. let each layer dry between. Its suggested to wait 15 minutes between layers. Be sure the leg is in a natural comfortable position so the goat can walk with some ease and lay down and get back up. Smooth and form the strips as you apply them.
Wrap the leg as you did for casting..several layers of cotton, then vet wrap...then fit the brace here is a you tube to show how to make the brace
Anaphylactic Shock is a sudden, severe allergic reaction involving the entire body.
Epinephine, Dexamethasone or large dose of benadryl can save the goats life
While there are some medications more likely to cause reaction then others...any injectable can cause a reaction...better to always be prepared no matter what you are giving...you will have no time to run to the house to get treatment..you will have no time to draw epinephrine , dex or Benadryl up...you need to have it on the ready BEFORE injection...
Signs of Shock Info from Goat-link.comThe Early Signs of Anaphylactic Shock
But since the horrible loss of my first goat,Goatee.. just a few weeks ago as of this writing, I have done a tremendous amount of research on the subject.) I had given him an injection of iron dextran on one side with a dose of injectable Ivomec on the other.. watched him for my standard 30 minutes here in the house and when I was sure he was fine.. sent him outside. An hour later I heard a goat hollering over the intercom, it was Not his typical voice. I went outside to see who it was and he was staggering and hollering, got him directly in the house and before I could get the epinephrine and load the syringe, he had gone through the entire cycle of these symptoms and was gone.. I would say it literally took 2 minutes or less.
I did finally find one website with research information on this and has stated the fact that anaphylactic shock can occur a couple hours later.. But most typically within minutes .. I quote the article: Goat-link.com
A clinical studied shows respiratory distress characterized by a multifold increase in frequency and thoracolumbar irregular and jerky respiration, nasal secretion, severe coughs, shivering, paddling and kicking. Auscultation revealed moist rales over the lung area. Animals were dull, depressed and unwilling to move. The clinical signs observed during anaphylaxis indicate that the lung may be the major shock organ of anaphylaxis in goats
to recap, All injectable medication CAN cause anaphylactic shock...more commonly known are horse serum medications such and cd&T, CD antitoxin, Tetanus, also Injectable iron. I have read that some had issue with BoSe, Nuflor, Ivomec...again, any injectable medication can cause reaction...some maybe mild with itching to severe...Be prepared and if your goats has a reaction, even mild..make note and avoid that medication for that goat.
Whether you are looking for a LGD, donkey, llama or other guard animal, there are a few things you need to consider. Choosing a guard animal takes time and thought and research. While from time to time a farmer may get lucky and that $50 pup he got at the flea market works out wonderfully, but sadly that is not always the case.
Not every “guard” animal are up for the job! I have read where LDG have killed entire herds, or attacked his owner, I have read where Donkeys have stomped new babies to death, pick a goat up by the neck and toss them like a rag doll, and Llama chase until the goat killed over...just because the breed fall a under the heading of guard , does not mean every one is suited.
BUY from a reputable breeder. Get references and be ready and willing to pay for your guard. His/her job will be huge and he/she will be worth every penny. A reputable breeder knows the characteristics a pup needs to have to be a good guard. Those who do not make the cut would never be sold as a guard. The breeder knows his pups are bred for a job, and would never risk your herd on a “gee I hope this one turns out ok” When choosing a LGD, make sure parents are working and pups are raised in the field. Watch the pups in action and at play..you want a friendly but serious about the job. Talk with the breeders and be sure they are knowledgable.
Donkeys are themselves a prey animal, and for that reason may not be the best choice as a guard. Choose wisely!! BUY from a reputable breeder. Never use a Jack as a guard. Only Choose Gelded Jacks or Jenny. And Please do not think a mini breed can hold off a pack of dogs. Don’t get a young donkey...even a 2 year old is still “ finding Himself”. You want an older Donkey who has been raised and used as a guard. You will want to introduce the donkey safely to the herd by fence visits for a while. I have 14 Donkeys who know all my dogs (we have 8) who know our goats and cows...we do not run our goats with the donkey herd, but they share fence line. Our cows run with the donkeys. IMPORTANT, when kidding season in you MUST remove the donkey to his own pen. Donkeys need time to know the kids are part of the herd. For Ex: Our cow calved out in the field. we were a bit off on her due date. The donkeys chased that new calf until mom took care of business..Donkeys were not doing anything wrong, that calf did not belong and they were doing their job. But the baby could have been injured. Please, before choosing a donkey, study! research! and search for one that is suited for the job...like a $50 flea market pup, a free donkey just may be the best thing to ever happen to you...but then it might not be..
Same info here...Not all are suited for the job. Buy from . Reputable breeder, watch the llama with goats..pick a geld or female. Do not expect a single llama to guard against a pack of dogs or large animal like a cat. They are more of an alarm and herd their charges to safety. They do quickly bond with their herd and will keep watch from higher locations and patrol the area..
All in all, do your research! Know what to expect..how to introduce the guard you have chosen to your herd..Best wishes
DID YOU KNOW???
Goats make their own "bicarbonate" when they chew a cud? Some goats make so much they foam at the mouth lol Feeding Baking soda Free choice 24/7 can do more harm then good...heres why.. Giving a biproduct that goats make themselves, be it Baking soda or Thiamine for long periods of time can convince the body it no longer needs to make it on its own. I have read accounts where after years of feeding Baking soda a producer pulled it from free choice and all his goat bloated severely. Over consumption can cause Hypokelemia, Paradoical CNS,intracellular acidosis . You should not use Baking soda in a goat who has suffering with Hypocalcemia... We should also be aware of Drug interactions...such as drugs which need a acidic medium for stability such as tretracyclines like La 200. Baking soda raises the goat's pH, where urinary stones dissolve in a lower pH (acidic conditions) so that's why it's not good for boys.
Understanding how drug choices we use works and how it can effect the goat and interact with other meds and illness is an important step in taking the best care of our animals. Even Something as simple as Baking soda... https://books.google.com/books…
DID YOU KNOW...Goats can have beer? Yep...when you have a goat with a compromised rumen, feeding/drenching dark beer at room temperature can help restore flora...Guinness is the darkest beer we can find local but there are others...darker the better.
Heres why: Probios contain digestive bacteria. Beer is very much alive and contains digestive yeasts, B-12, B-6, B-1 (all chelated to the yeasts), plus hops which increase appetite and give a feeling of well being. They do work differently and will also work together.
4-6 oz 1-2 times a day for small/large adult goats...adjust accordingly
For young kids: As long as kids are chewing a cud, dark beer can be helpful, but at much smaller doses...I would dose at 1/2 cc per pound..
“Gas is a natural by-product of digestive fermentation in the rumen, and it is expelled continuously as the goat belches. Bloat occurs when gas is trapped in the rumen. It is a life-threatening condition. Frothy bloat is usually caused by overeating lush, damp feeds such as clover, alfalfa or legume pastures.” kinne.net/bloat.htm
Indications of bloat are, *large left belly..up high and tight, goat may breath heavy, grind teeth, kick at side in pain..
No matter the kind of bloat you are dealing with,start with cd antitoxin shot
Frothy bloat is caused by the goat overeating fresh lush green pasture,clover, alfalfa ect..especially when wet...Flothy bloat is by far harder to deal with then dry bloat. tiny bubbles form a foam, making it impossible for the goat to pop and belch the gasses out.. the goat can die from respiratory or circulatory failure due to the pressure building on his diaphragm.
Dry Bloat usually caused by grain product, or rumen stress...anytime the goat can not belch or gas ...gas builds on the upper portion of the rumen..
Other cause of bloat is if the animal has something stuck in his throat..Some of us may have experianced when a goat began thrashing about coughing after being a pig at the rain feeder..it is scary. if what has them thrashing stays stuck, bloat will quickly build...
In mild bloat cases, removing the cause of bloat is best for 12 -24 hours...in dry bloat case where large amounts of grain has been fed, do not offer water for 12 hours. water will add the fermentation of the grain and make matters worse. Feed hay during the 12 hour water fast to help stimulate the rumen. You may also find it helpful to offer baking soda free choice during this time.
In Severe cases, tubing meds to the goat maybe the only thing to save her life..here is a link to show you how
In desperate situations, it may call you to puncture the wall of the rumen with a trocar...this is for last resort..and better done under a vets care!!! here is a link on that
DiGel or powdered Tide laundry detergent (one tablespoon of Tide powder mixed with maybe 60 cc of water) will eliminate the froth and allow the goat to belch. the soap weakens the walls of the bubbles making it easy to “pop” and burp out. Be sure its plain tide powder, no bleach added or other additives. Dawn dish soap can also be used...same measurement as the tide. There are over the counter bloat remedies that you can also keep on hand. Milk of magnesia 15 cc per 60# , Baking soda in enough water to drench or make a paste to feed. a few natural remedies are Peppermint Ess. Oil, Ess. oil Digestive blend, Peppermint tea.
“Make a STRONG Peppermint Tea using 1 cup Medicinal grade Peppermint Leaves to 1 quart of hot distilled water. Infuse for 30 minutes then DRENCH. You are dealing with acidosis and enterotoxemia, and there is a race against time to save the kidneys. You DO NOT need to wait the entire 30 minutes before you use some of this infusion to drench the animal. Syringe some out after 5 minutes, and cap it back up tight to allow it to steep longer. You can keep doing that every 5-10 minutes. Get at least 50cc's down them each time.”
“Make a drench with HOT water and handfuls of Dandelions and Peppermint Leaves. Combine that with equal amounts (tsp.) of clove, cinnamon, ginger, myrhh, goldenseal, fennel, dill and big pinches of cayenne (40,000 heat unit potency). Infuse and Drench.” from Totally Natural goats
Once you have the goat in recovery..I would make GI soother 2-4 times a day to help tame the tummy, and feed a bland diet of hay and water for 12-24 hours.
1 teaspoon each Cayenne pepper, ginger, cinnamon,ACV and molasses in enough water to make 20-30 cc and drench...
When nothing is working you need to be proactive..as gasses build goats cant breath..you may need to use a needles to release the air..here is a link to show you how..
Avoiding bloat is always better then treatment...Don’t over feed, Make sure the animal cannot break in to feed bins or chicken coops. Setting out to graze after the dew has burned off. Feed hay before other more lush foods...
What will we do when all wormers are no longer effective?
There are only 3 families of wormers...
1- Benzamidoles fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard) • oxfendazole (Synanthic) • albendazole (Valbazen) also kills flukes
2- Cell Depolarizers Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole) • Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet) ( this group does not support the use of positive pellets)
3- Avermectins/Milbemycins Ivermectin (Ivomec) • Dormectrin (Dectomax) • Eprinomectin (Eprinex) • Moxidectin (Cydectin) Longrange
If one in a family of wormers stops working, the others will soon follow....we need to do our part..but how?
Do not worm on schedule...but only when needed based on Fecal, body and coat condition, famacha score and weight.. Do not rotate wormers..Keep with the same wormer as long as it works...fecal before and after to see if your wormer is effective Do not over use. Sometimes 3 days in a row is needed, like when treating for tape worm, other wise heavy loads need 3 times with 10 days between each dose..
DO NOT KEEP DOSING I have seen in desperation producers worming several times a day in an animal with bottle jaw..more wormer does not work faster, it only dumps a ton of chemicals in an already compromised animal. We must give time for the wormer to work.
Use the wormers properly, Im a firm believer if its injectable, inject it, if its oral, give orally and if its pour on...don't use it!! Pour on do not work effectively for internal parasites. If its pellet, toss it!!
There is research that shows injectable can be more effective given orally, BUT this should never be done in heavy loaded anemic goats. Dose is often larger for goats fast metabolism ...please read our medication dose file to know what goats need..
Withhold feed for 12-16 hours before worming and then 12 hours after. This is not practical for many. I would at least try worming first thing in the AM before morning feed...
Be proactive...check famacha every time you have your hands on your animals. As often as you can, and sooner during peek months...Hot humid wet weather is peek weather! Barberpole worms lay 10,000 eggs a day...a healthy goats can go from deep pink famacha to pale lids in less then a day!! You must keep watch! PLEASE read the worm file and take time to watch the video..its long but informative! It is our responsibility to keep learning!
We do have other choices. These are more work, but can be very effective
* herbal parasite formulas *Use fresh garlic and ginger paste * quality essencial oils.. * Pasture rotation *Animal rotation ( running horses after goats ect) *Cull goats who are susceptable to worm load * Buy proven worm resistant stock
Lets all do our part. Coccidia treatments are loosing ground as well!! PLEASE use correctly!!!
Whether you brought home a rescue or have one who survived a severe illness, ..refeeding that animal to insure a successful and full recover is important. Its not feeding MORE, but feeding Proper....here is a great article written to help us do just that....
© 2015 All rights reserved Why animal owners would let their animals starve is a mystery to all of us I'm sure. I suspect that one of the biggest reasons is people getting more than they can care for and "loving" them too much to get rid of some.
So, somehow a starving goat has come into your life. How do you handle it? What should you do to put her on a path to health?
Of course, your first reaction is going to be to get this goat eating as fast as possible, to fill her full of supplements and meds...DO NOT DO THIS. Above all DO NOT give ANY worming medications.
In the healthy goat, she eats her food and through a complicated process involving minerals, vitamins, and amino acids energy is created. If the goat eats more carbohydrates and fats than she needs then the excess is stored in the cells for later use. Protein is used up immediately for day to day function and is not stored. It is used to build cells in the body.
In the starving goat, she has very little, if anything at all to eat. The energy process must go on though for her to sustain life. Her system over rides the health of her body to protect the brain. She begins to use up the protein of her own cells to stay alive, this includes the cells of her stomachs, intestines, and heart.
It is very important for the rescuer to understand how to begin refeeding and why if it is done wrong, it can cause the severe complications.
Refeeding syndrome was first discovered when the Jews were rescued from the Concentration Camps, the very act of eating was detrimental to these starving people. Similar reactions occur in starving goats. This syndrome can cause kidney, heart, and respiratory failure 2 to 5 days after the first feeding.
In ‘Saving Survivors,’ King explains that, ‘When you introduce calories you have an elevation in the insulin, when insulin increases; it starts an electrolyte shift that ultimately can cause a respiratory compromise. Consequently, red blood cells collapse; with that, the patient doesn’t have adequate oxygen transfer and the horse goes into this irreversible condition that can lead to death.” (King, 2003)
Electrolyte imbalances are at the root of the complications associated with ‘re-feeding syndrome’. The more notable problems include hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. When carbohydrates, or glucose, is fed to the starving animal these electrolytes are driven into the intracellular compartment causing a severe deficiency of serum electrolyte levels (UC Davis, Shelter)
When a starving animal is fed a high carbohydrate meal, insulin is released in response to the high starch levels. Insulin is a hormone that stores carbohydrates in cells for use as an energy source. At the same time, the released insulin pulls magnesium and phosphorous out of circulation and into the cell. During starvation the animal’s electrolytes have been depleted and the starved animal doesn’t have additional stores available for normal functioning. During the course of the next several days a cumulative effect occurs during eachfeeding of high carbohydrate feed. The continued depletion of these electrolytes can lead to death by respiratory, cardiac or kidney failure. (Dr. Caroline Stull PhD)
Managing a starving Goat
When refeeding a starving goat some important things to remember are...
Refeeding Syndrome usually happens in the first week of feeding. The recommended diet is low carbohydrate and low fat. Alfalfa hay is recommended. The best approach is tiny, very frequent meals of high quality alfalfa hay. The frequency should be decreased and the amount of each meal raised very slowly over a 14 day period. After 2 weeks the goat can be slowly raised to as much alfalfa as she wants. Researchers feel that this is the time period to adjust from a starved state to a fed state. The energy level of the goat should increase at the 2 week time period. Animation of the ears and face will be the first sign she's getting better. 6 months to a year is required to bring the goat back to acceptable health.
Starved animals have impaired immune systems so, they must be kept separate from other animals.
Signs to watch for include: Muscle weakness, Neurological dysfunction (polio), irritability or aggression, anemia, she may need electrolyte (CMPK) injections if any of these signs are noticed.
Another refeeding problem is depleted thiamine. Goats make thiamine in their rumen to help digest carbohydrates. The resulting depletion can become worse when feeding begins so, thiamine injections should be provided.
The refeeding schedule should look something like this for the standard sized adult: Adjust amounts depending on the situation and size of the goat
Days 1-3: Divide 1.5 lb of alfalfa into 6 feedings Days 4-14: Very slowly increase the amount of alfalfa hay and decrease the number of feedings until you arefeeding 1 lb of alfalfa every 8 hours for a daily total of 3 lbs.
Day 14 to around 6 months: Very slowly increase the amount of alfalfa to all they can eat and decrease feedings to twice a day. Provide a good mineral supplement but NOTHING else. Giving grain and/or supplements at this point will set her back and may still cause death.
DO NOT give grain until the goat looks/acts healthy in every way and the lost weight is almost completely regained.
Provide fresh clean water at all times.
De-worming can be done when the goat is easily eating as much alfalfa as she should be twice a day with no ill effects and her appetite has stabilized.
Stull, Carolyn, PhD, July 2003, The Horse Report, UC Davis, Volume 21, Number 3, pp456-457 ‘Nutrition for Rehabilitating the Starved Horse’, UC Davis Medical Center.
http://sheltermedicine.com/portal/i... UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program
http://www/thehorse.com King, Marcia, April 2003, ‘Saving Survivors, Article # 4283]